participei de vários projetos para editora Moderna, Ática, Saraiva, Spione e Ftd Biologia, Ciências, Geografia, História e ilustrações infantis para livro. Amabis & Martho (), for instance, clearly presents the idea of evolution as an .. AMABIS, J. M.; MARTHO, G. R. Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna (2nd ed.). P. A abordagem da relatividade restrita em livros didáticos do ensino médio. AMABIS, J.M.; MARTHO, G.R. Fundamentos da Biologia Moderna. livro/58ra/JNIC/RESUMOS/resumo_html>.

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The definition of life proposed is limited to a list of properties, seeking to characterize what a living being essentially is and what a non-living being essentially is essentialist view. Los conceptos estruturales en el aprendizaje por investigacion. A response to Gifford.

As concerns the search for common patterns in the diversity of life, a reductionist tendency can be perceived, as the unity of life is emphasized in the molecular and cellular levels, with no corresponding effort to uncover features which might integrate our understanding of living beings in higher dda levels. The books were selected by combining the results biologi two surveys: Life would appear when an aggregate of molecules, endowed with the ability to perform ordered chemical reactions, extracting from the environment raw materials and energy, managed to maintain its organization and isolate itself from the environment.

This passage suggests that life will be better and better understood as our inquiry delves more and more into the micro- structural levels of living beings. All books agreed about the complexity involved in trying to define life, given that some organisms cannot be properly placed in the set of living beings through certain lists of common characters.

But a thoughtful analysis can suggest that this solution is not so adequate.

Click here to sign up. Biology and Philosophy 7: The genetic program metaphor, much criticized in the literature e. This approach can be verified in the fragmentary way mratho textbooks deal with the levels of complexity, making it difficult to understand, for instance, that the relations of living beings to each other and to their environment depend on their internal organization. Environmental Causes in Ontogeny.

Amabis Fundamentos Biologia Moderna Pdf 12 | piapilhard

Viruses and other biolpgia structures showing distinctive properties of both inanimate matter and living beings seem to be exceptional because they contradict our intuitions about the distinction between these two classes of entities.

Among several misunderstandings and difficulties resulting from this metaphor, we have the problem that it emphasizes a purely informational conception of life. The gene that codifies the prion protein is bioolgia the host itself, so that the prion lacks genetic material and, in fact, cannot do copies of itself in the same sense as typical living beings do.


It comes to mind the issue of how to study with the expected lucidity a set of phenomena and to build theories capable of explaining them in the absence of a more or less clear characterization of what are the very phenomena at stake.

On some theoretical-grounds for an organism-centered biology: Or, to put it differently, a characterization of life from its counter- example, death. Only three books include a specific chapter or section fundakentos this issue Figure 2. Given that these molecules rule almost mmoderna activities of the cell, the nucleus plays the role of an indirect controller of the cellular metabolism.

This argument is not sufficient, however, for avoiding a violation of the Cell Theory by viruses, maetho this theory states that the cell is the basic structural unit of all living beings, and this does not hold in the case of viruses, no matter whether they are strictly dependent on cells or not.

Their Structure and Representation. When the properties listed are interconnected in the context of some paradigm, the list is no longer, as in the case of essentialist definitions, something like a medical syndrome, a collection of symptoms with no underlying cause. As to the nature of the life definition s presented if there is any: Rather, it is possible to explain the characteristic coexistence of that list of symptoms of life on the grounds of some set of causes.

Nonetheless, what seems strange in the above solution aabis that it follows necessarily from the attempt to propose lists of necessary and sufficient conditions for life. An understanding of the organizational patterns observed in living beings indicates how it is important in science and biology teaching to deal with the central, structuring Gagliardi concepts in biological thought, in contrast with the encyclopedic tendency of curricula El- Hani, in press[b].

The problem lies in the disproportionate emphasis on the micro-structure of biological systems, usually in an approach tending to isolate molecular and cellular structures from the organismic and environmental contexts.

How the problem of defining life has been dealt with? Log In Sign Up.

Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna 2nd ed. This distinction becomes difficult, however, when we consider equivocal cases such as viruses, viroids, prions, or a biochemical soup of RNA fragments in a laboratory. It conflates the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathological process with the pathological phenomenon itself.

One cannot lose from sight, however, that such a problem is also found in university biology textbooks.

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It can be compared with the memory of a computer and stores thousands of instructions to make cellular proteins. The definition of life proposed explicitly situates the life concept in a biological paradigm, trying to give this concept a meaning by connecting it with other concepts in that paradigm.


Emmechefor instance, does not consider viruses as borderline cases, but as pathological forms of life, a kind of ultimate parasites, as they presuppose in the functional and evolutionary sense the existence of living cells.

It is not that there would be any problem in searching for a unity in the diversity of life. What is the paradigm in which the textbook includes, implicitly or explicitly, the life definition if there is any? All the instructions to the functioning of the cell would be written, in code, in the DNA molecules. Therefore, it should be regarded as a positive aspect that the biology textbooks we examined here, albeit recognizing the difficulties involved in defining life, do not avoid the discussion about how one can characterize living beings, differentiating them from inanimate matter.

Help Center Find new research papers in: It is desirable, then, to address this problem in a non-essentialist manner, inasmuch as this is compatible with population thinking. The same is not true of Paulinowho presents a coherent set of interrelated properties, based on a view of the scope of the Biological Sciences as well as of the way the living world is organized, from the simplest to the most complex levels of organization, suggesting the existence of some theoretical justification for their choice; nonetheless, the paradigm at stake is not explicitly stated.

The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Thus, the characterization of viruses and other structures as borderline cases may be a reflection more of the inadequacy of our defining procedures than of the nature of what we are trying to define.

We also found in the analyzed textbooks an informational view of life. Three books characterized living beings by means of a general description of taxonomic groups that highlighted the attributes of each group Figure 2. Such a view about diseases overlooks the focal level sensu Salthe where pathological processes themselves usually take place, involving not only cells and molecules, but, above all, tissues, organs, and organic systems.

The new problem of genetics: The textbook sections about the origins of life contain important issues concerning life concepts. Theory in Biosciences The treatment of this problem revolves around the possibilities of an origin by divine creation, or chemical evolution, or in some extraterrestrial place. To cast them aside as exceptions seems to be, at first, quite a natural and easy solution.